Earth's biosphere is essentially a materially closed system. However,
it is open to information and energetic sources, such as sunlight
and heat radiation. As well,
some input from the solar system enters the Earth's atmosphere, such as meteorites,
and some gases and other material objects like various space craft
transit from the Earth's atmosphere into space.
is the study of all kinds of biospheres: an exciting and essential new science,
first envisioned by Vladimir Vernadsky (Russia) in the 1920's.
Biospherics differs from systems ecology in that it deals with
materially closed systems and thus complete biogeochemical cycling.
Biospheres, as a class of objects to study, are defined as energetically
open, materially closed life systems, natural or artificial, and
capable of long term self-renewal. Biospheric closed systems include the project Biosphere 2, its test
module, and recently a 1400 cu ft structure called the "Laboratory Biosphere."
Foundation is pioneering a fourth closed system called Mars On Earth®
- a prototype life support system for a manned mission to
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